Monday, August 30, 2010

talking about sex!!!

1. Sources of Information on Sexual and Reproductive Health

Source Questions
Important sources Most important source about puberty 2.1
Second most important source about puberty 2.1
Most important source about reproductive systems 2.3
Second most important source about reproductive systems 2.3
Most important source about relationships 2.5
Second most important source about relationships 2.5

Preferred sources Preferred source about puberty 2.2
Preferred source about reproductive systems 2.4
Preferred source about relationships 2.6

Parents Frequency of discussing sex with father 1.27
Frequency of discussing sex with mother 1.31

School Exposure to sex-education in school 2.7
Opinion on amount of sex-education in school 2.8

Health facilities/staff Saw posters on contraception at last visit to health facility 11.5
Received brochures on contraception at last visit to health facility 11.6
Attended talk on contraception at last visit to health facility 11.7
Doctor/nurse talked about contraception at last visit to health facility 11.9
Doctor/nurse talked about STIs at last visit to health facility 11.9
Doctor/nurse talked about pregnancy at last visit to health facility 11.9


2. Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge

Source
Reproductive physiology Belief that a woman can get pregnant at first intercourse 2.9
Belief that a woman stops growing after first intercourse 2.10
Belief that masturbation is a serious health threat 2.11
Belief that pregnancy is most likely to occur in mid-cycle 2.12

Contraception Spontaneous/prompted awareness of pill and supply source 7.2
Spontaneous/prompted awareness of injection and supply source 7.3
Spontaneous/prompted awareness of condom and supply source 7.4
Spontaneous/prompted awareness of emergency contraceptive pills and supply source 7.5
Spontaneous/prompted awareness of withdrawal 7.6
Spontaneous/prompted awareness of periodic abstinence 7.7
Spontaneous knowledge of IUD, Implant, jelly/foam, sterilisation 7.8
View on most suitable method for young people 7.9
Agree that condoms effectively protect against pregnancy 9.6

HIV/STDs Awareness of HIV/AIDS 8.1
Belief that it is possible to cure AIDS 8.2
Belief that HIV-infected person always looks unhealthy 8.3
Belief that condoms reduce risk of HIV infection 8.4, 9.10
Awareness of STIs 8.5
Knowledge of symptoms of STIs in men 8.6
Knowledge of symptoms of STIs in women 8.7
Knowledge of sources of treatment of STIs 8.7

Condoms Ever seen a condom 9.5
Agree that condoms effectively protect against pregnancy 9.6
Agree that condoms effectively protect against HIV 9.10
Agree that condoms can disappear inside a woman's body 9.16
Agree that condoms effectively protect against STIs 9.18
Agree that condoms can be used more than once 9.7


3. Sexual Conduct

Source
General Heterosexual Ever experienced sexual intercourse 4.12, 4.13
Age at first intercourse 5.2 OR 3.25
Life-time number of sexual partners 4.14
Number of coercive sex partners 4.1, 4.2
Number of casual sex partners 4.6, 4.7
Number of commercial sex partners 4.9, 4.10
Recency of last intercourse 4.15
Sexual intercourse with current boy/girl friend 3.20

Characteristics of First Sex partner/Partnership Nature of relationship
IF BOY/GIRL FRIEND: 5.4
Age of partner 5.5 or 3.4
Marital status of partner 5.6 or 3.5
School/employment status of partner 5.7 or 3.6
When relationship started 5.8 or 3.7
Duration of relationship 5.9/5.10 or 3.8/3.9
Whether relationship has ended 5.9 or 3.8
Who ended the relationship 5.11 or 3.10
Whether there were concurrent relationships 5.12 or 3.11
Respondent's classification of relationship 5.13 or 3.12
Partner's perceived classification of relationship 5.14 or 3.13

Characteristics of First Intercourse Respondent's age at that time 5.2 or 3.25
Nature of coercion, if any 5.15 or 3.22
Whether planned 5.16 or 3.23
Whether regretted afterwards 5.17 or 3.26
Contraceptive method used 5.18/19 or 3.27/28
Whether contraception was discussed before or after 5.20 or 3.29

Subsequent sexual conduct and outcomes with first partner Number of coital acts 5.21 or 3.30
Regularity of contraceptive used 5.22 or 3.31
Usual method use 5.23 or3.32
Source of method 5.24 or 3.33
Who took contraceptive decisions 5.25 or 3.34
Whether pregnancy occurred 5.26 or 3.35
Outcome of pregnancy 5.27 or 3.36
Respondent's concern about HIV 5.28 or 3.37
Preventive steps taken against HIV 5.29/30 or 3.38/9

Homosexual Experiences Ever sexually attracted 6.1
Ever had sexual contact 6.2
Masturbation 6.3, 6.4
Sexual orientation 6.10
MALES ONLY:
Number of penetrative partners 6.6, 6.7
Number of receptive partners 6.8, 6.9

genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation

Key facts
• Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or injure female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
• The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women.
• Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later, potential childbirth complications and newborn deaths.
• An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM.
• It is mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15 years.
• In Africa an estimated 92 million girls from 10 years of age and above have undergone FGM.
• FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. Increasingly, however, FGM is being performed by health care providers.
FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.


Procedures
Female genital mutilation is classified into four major types.
• Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris).
• Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (the labia are "the lips" that surround the vagina).
• Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer, labia, with or without removal of the clitoris.
• Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.
No health benefits, only harm
FGM has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies.
Immediate complications can include severe pain, shock, haemorrhage (bleeding), tetanus or sepsis (bacterial infection), urine retention, open sores in the genital region and injury to nearby genital tissue.
Long-term consequences can include:
• recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections;
• cysts;
• infertility;
• an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths;
• the need for later surgeries. For example, the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening (type 3 above) needs to be cut open later to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth. Sometimes it is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing and repeated both immediate and long-term risks.
Who is at risk?
Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15, and occasionally on adult women. In Africa, about three million girls are at risk for FGM annually.
Between 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are living with the consequences of FGM. In Africa, about 92 million girls age 10 years and above are estimated to have undergone FGM.
The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, and among certain immigrant communities in North America and Europe.
Cultural, religious and social causes
The causes of female genital mutilation include a mix of cultural, religious and social factors within families and communities.
• Where FGM is a social convention, the social pressure to conform to what others do and have been doing is a strong motivation to perpetuate the practice.
• FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl properly, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage.
• FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered proper sexual behaviour, linking procedures to premarital virginity and marital fidelity. FGM is in many communities believed to reduce a woman's libido, and thereby is further believed to help her resist "illicit" sexual acts. When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed (type 3 above), the fear of pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage "illicit" sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM.
• FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are “clean” and "beautiful" after removal of body parts that are considered "male" or "unclean".
• Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support.
• Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: some promote it, some consider it irrelevant to religion, and others contribute to its elimination.
• Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice.
• In most societies, FGM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
• In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups. Sometimes it has started as part of a wider religious or traditional revival movement.
• In some societies, FGM is being practised by new groups when they move into areas where the local population practice FGM.
International response
In 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a joint statement with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) against the practice of FGM. A new statement, with wider United Nations support, was then issued in February 2008 to support increased advocacy for the abandonment of FGM.
The 2008 statement documents new evidence collected over the past decade about the practice. It highlights the increased recognition of the human rights and legal dimensions of the problem and provides current data on the frequency and scope of FGM. It also summarizes research about why FGM continues, how to stop it, and its damaging effects on the health of women, girls and newborn babies.
Since 1997, great efforts have been made to counteract FGM, through research, work within communities, and changes in public policy. Progress at both international and local levels includes:
• wider international involvement to stop FGM;
• the development of international monitoring bodies and resolutions that condemn the practice;
• revised legal frameworks and growing political support to end FGM; and
• in some countries, decreasing practice of FGM, and an increasing number of women and men in practicing communities who declare their support to end it.
Research shows that, if practicing communities themselves decide to abandon FGM, the practice can be eliminated very rapidly.
WHO response
In 2008, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution (WHA61.16) on the elimination of FGM, emphasizing the need for concerted action in all sectors - health, education, finance, justice and women's affairs.
WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on:
• advocacy: developing publications and advocacy tools for international, regional and local efforts to end FGM within a generation;
• research: generating knowledge about the causes and consequences of the practice, how to eliminate it, and how to care for those who have experienced FGM;
• guidance for health systems: developing training materials and guidelines for health professionals to help them treat and counsel women who have undergone procedures.
WHO is particularly concerned about the increasing trend for medically trained personnel to perform FGM. WHO strongly urges health professionals not to perform such procedures.

Copyright © oyewusi

Friday, August 27, 2010

abortions



human_body.GIF

           abortion

Unsafe abortion continues to be a major public health problem in many countries.
A woman dies every eighth minute somewhere in a developing country due to
complications arising from unsafe abortion. She was likely to have had little or no money
to procure safe services, was young – perhaps in her teens – living in rural areas and had
little social support to deal with her unplanned pregnancy. She might have been raped or
she might have experienced an accidental pregnancy due to the failure of the contraceptive
method she was using or the incorrect or inconsistent way she used it. She probably fifirst
attempted to self-induce the termination and after that failed, she turned to an unskilled,
but relatively inexpensive, provider. This is a real life story of so many women in developing
countries in spite of the major advancements in technologies and in public health.
The Safe Motherhood Conference held in 1987 in Nairobi drew the world’s attention to
the shocking fact that over half a million women die needlessly due to complications
related to pregnancy and childbirth. One of the most easily preventable causes of maternal
death and ill-health is unsafe abortion, which causes approximately 13% of all maternal
deaths and approximately 20% of the overall burden of maternal death and long-term sexual
and reproductive ill-health.
Twenty years after the Nairobi Conference, we fifind that unsafe abortion is a continuing
pandemic: every year nearly 42 million women faced with an unplanned pregnancy decide
to have an abortion, and about 20 million of them are forced to resort to unsafe abortion.
These approximately 20 million women often self-induce abortions or obtain a clandestine
and unsafe abortion carried out by untrained persons under poor hygienic conditions.
Abortion induced by a skilled provider in situations where it is legal is one of the safest
procedures in contemporary medical practice and the recourse to manual vacuum aspiration
(MVA) and medical (non-surgical) abortion have reduced abortion-related complications to
very low levels.
The interventions to prevent unsafe abortion include expanding access to modern
contraceptive services, providing safe abortion to the full extent of the law, and tackling
the legal and programmatic barriers to the access to safe abortion. An informed and
objective discourse continues to be much needed for developing interventions to prevent
unsafe abortion and its devastating consequences for the survival, health and well-being of
women, families and societies. By providing an objective assessment of the incidence of
unsafe abortion and its related mortality, this report goes a long way in raising awareness
of this major, but often neglected, public health problem. It provides the basis for informed
discussion and implementing the much required interventions to reduce and, eventually,
eliminate unsafe abortion

                                                                            composed by okentic